Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a serious form of pneumonia. It is caused by a virus that was first identified in 2003. Infection with the SARS virus causes acute respiratory distress (severe breathing difficulty) and sometimes death. Causes SARS is caused by a member of the coronavirus family of viruses (the same family that can cause the common cold). It is believed the 2003 epidemic started when the virus spread from small mammals in China.When someone with SARS coughs or sneezes, infected droplets spray into the air. You can catch the SARS virus if you breathe in or touch these particles. The SARS virus may live on hands, tissues, and other surfaces for up to 6 hours in these droplets and up to 3 hours after the droplets have dried.While the spread of droplets through close contact caused most of the early SARS cases, SARS might also spread by hands and other objects the droplets has touched. Airborne transmission is a...
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Enlarged prostate

The prostate is a gland that produces the fluid that carries sperm during ejaculation. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube through which urine passes out of the body.An enlarged prostate means the gland has grown bigger. Prostate enlargement happens to almost all men as they get older.An enlarged prostate is often called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It is not cancer, and it does not raise your risk for prostate cancer. Watch this video about:Enlarged prostate gland Causes The actual cause of prostate enlargement is unknown. Factors linked to aging and changes in the cells of the testicles may have a role in the growth of the gland. Men who have had their testicles removed at a young age (for example, as a result of testicular cancer) do not develop BPH.Also, if the testicles are removed after a man develops BPH, the prostate begins to shrink in size.Some facts about prostate enlargement:The likelihood of developing an enlarged prostate increases with age.BPH is...
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Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. Causes Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells. The pancreas is below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored and later used for energy. When you have type 2 diabetes, your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin. This is called insulin resistance. As a result, blood sugar does not get into these cells to be stored for energy.When sugar cannot enter cells, a high level of sugar builds up in the blood. This is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 2 diabetes.Type 2 diabetes usually develops slowly over time. Most people with the...
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Head lice

Head lice are tiny insects that live on the skin covering the top of your head (scalp). Head lice may also be found in eyebrows and eyelashes.Lice can be spread by close contact with other people. Causes Head lice infect hair on the head. Tiny eggs on the hair look like flakes of dandruff. However, instead of flaking off the scalp, they stay in place.Head lice can live up to 30 days on a human. Their eggs can live for more than 2 weeks.Head lice spread easily, particularly among school children. Head lice are more common in close, overcrowded living conditions.You can get head lice if:You come in close contact with a person who has lice.You touch the clothing or bedding of someone who has lice.You share hats, towels, brushes, or combs of someone who has lice. Having head lice causes intense itching, but does not lead to serious medical problems. Unlike body lice, head lice never carry or spread diseases.Having head...
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Pemphigus vulgaris

Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune disorder of the skin. It involves blistering and sores (erosions) of the skin and mucous membranes. Causes The immune system produces antibodies against specific proteins in the skin and mucous membranes. These antibodies break the bonds between skin cells. This leads to the formation of a blister. The exact cause is unknown.In rare cases, pemphigus is caused by some medicines, including:A medicine called penicillamine, which removes certain materials from the blood (chelating agent)Blood pressure medicines called ACE inhibitors Pemphigus is uncommon. It most often occurs in middle-aged or older people. Symptoms About 50% of people with this condition first develop painful blisters and sores in the mouth. This is followed by skin blisters. Skin sores may come and go.The skin sores may be described as:DrainingOozingCrustingPeeling or easily detachedThey may be located:In the mouthOn the scalp, trunk, or other skin areas Exams and Tests The skin separates easily when the surface of unaffected skin is rubbed sideways with a cotton swab...
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Angiodysplasia of the colon

Angiodysplasia of the colon is swollen, fragile blood vessels in the colon. This can result in blood loss from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Causes Angiodysplasia of the colon is mostly related to the aging and break down of the blood vessels. It is more common in older adults. It is almost always seen on the right side of the colon.Most likely, the problem develops out of normal spasms of the colon that cause the blood vessels in the area to enlarge. When this swelling becomes severe, a tiny passageway develops between a small artery and vein. This is called an arteriovenous malformation. Bleeding can occur from this area in the colon wall. Rarely, angiodysplasia of the colon is related to other diseases of the blood vessels. One of these is Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. The condition is not related to cancer. It is also different than diverticulosis, which is a more common cause of intestinal bleeding in older adults. Symptoms The symptoms vary.Older people may have...
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Social anxiety disorder

Social anxiety disorder is a persistent and irrational fear of situations that may involve scrutiny or judgment by others, such as at parties and other social events. Causes People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in the teens and may have to do with overprotective parents or limited social opportunities. Men and women are affected equally with this disorder.People with social phobia are at high risk for alcohol or other drug use. This is because they may come to rely on these substances to relax in social situations. Symptoms People with social anxiety become very anxious and self-conscious in everyday social situations. They have an intense, persistent, and chronic fear of being watched and judged by others, and of doing things that will embarrass them. They can worry for days or weeks before a dreaded situation. This fear may become so severe that it interferes with work, school, and other ordinary...
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Femoral hernia

A hernia occurs when the contents of the abdomen push through a weak point or tear the thin muscle wall of the belly. This layer of muscle holds the abdominal organs in place. A hernia most often occurs in the small intestine area. A femoral hernia is a bulge in the upper part of the thigh near the groin. Causes Most of the time, there is no clear cause of a hernia. Some hernias may be present at birth (congenital), but are not noticed until later in life.Some factors that contribute to the development of a hernia include:Chronic constipationChronic coughHeavy liftingObesityStraining to urinate because of an enlarged prostateFemoral hernias tend to occur more often in women than in men. Symptoms You may see a bulge in the upper thigh just below the groin.Most femoral hernias cause no symptoms. You may have some groin discomfort. It may be worse when you stand, lift heavy objects, or strain.Sometimes, the first symptoms are:Sudden groin painAbdominal painNauseaVomitingThis may...
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Health screening – men – ages 18 to 39

You should visit your health care provider regularly, even if you feel healthy. The purpose of these visits is to:Screen for medical issuesAssess your risk for future medical problemsEncourage a healthy lifestyleUpdate vaccinationsHelp you get to know your provider in case of an illness Information Even if you feel fine, you should still see your provider for regular checkups. These visits can avoid problems in the future. For example, the only way to find out if you have high blood pressure is to have it checked regularly. High blood sugar and high cholesterol level also may not have any symptoms in the early stages. There are specific times when you should see your provider. Below are screening guidelines for men ages 18 to 39. BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING Have your blood pressure checked every 3 to 5 years unless the top number (systolic number) is between 120 and 139 or the bottom number (diastolic number) is between 80 and 89 mm Hg...
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Testes

The testes are 2 egg-shaped male reproductive organs located in the scrotum. They produce sperm and the male hormone, testosterone. Watch this video about:Sperm release pathway Alternative Names Testicles; Gonads - male Images Male reproductive anatomy Sperm References Elder JS. Disorders and anomalies of the scrotal contents. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 539.Chung BI, Sommer G, Brooks JD. Anatomy of the lower urinary tract and male genitalia. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 2....
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