RNA secondary construction anticipation from RNA sequences is an intense reasearch field in bioinformatics.Free Energy Minimization is the most common method for the prediction.In this method, the free energy is calculated and those constructions with minimal energy stabilises the structure.Comparative sequence analysis is based on the evolutionary construct that it conserved the sequences that are more important.It is the most sure attack.


RNA is considered as a familial design in some viruses like HIV. RNA consists of base fused in series by phosphodioester bonds to organize a polymer which maps in a cell to transcribe cistrons into a protein molecule.Other than that, it is besides involved as accelerators and splicing noncoding DNAs. [ imp.html ] RNA accelerators, regulators and other such cellular mechanisms is related to its construction. [ Dr Chormos School ] zotero.

RNA [ 7 ] is considered as a individual stranded additive molecule but similar RNA molecule semen in contact and merges together by assorted parts making creases within themselves by stacking base braces to organize a secondary or third RNA structure.This set of predicted base braces which abide by base coupling regulations G-C, A-U Watson-Crick coupling or G-U brace is called the secondary construction of an RNA molecule.Example: transfer RNA

There are three phases of an RNA construction [ Revolutions-David H.Mathews ] .It includes primary construction which is merely a additive sequence, secondary construction which is the amount of predicted base braces and third construction in which a 3D modeling from structural elements of secondary RNA are inferred. [ Current subjects in computational mol bilogy by Tao Jiang, Ying Xu, Michael Q. Zhang ] .Thus, there is a great demand in foretelling secondary construction of RNA.Although, the methods to visualize secondary construction of RNA dates back many old ages, anticipations were non accurate.The proposal of Computational methods so became successful in supplying statisfying predicted consequences. [ current topics-tao jian ] .secondary strucutre equation.


There are several ways to foretell the secondary construction of RNA.Experimental methods includes NMR Spectroscopy, X-ray Crystallography which is non merely expensive but requires ample sum of clip. [ Bridging the spread in RNA construction anticipation Bruce A Shapiro ] .

But here, two ways are considered to find the RNA secondary construction from RNA sequence.Single sequence is utilized by first method: Free energy minimisation whereas multiple aligned sequence is used by 2nd method to infer the RNA secondary construction.


Energy minimisation [ 6 ] method does non necessitate sequence alliance and depends on primary construction but expects an appraisal of energy footings of secondary construction which is responsible for the finding of anticipation quality.It does non necessitate any addtional stairss as it is automatic in nature unlike comparative analysis method.This method is based on rules that the RNA secondary construction has to be most stable in footings of thermodynamics and has to hold lowest free energy. [ New method to foretell conserved RNA..by A.A Mironov-imp2.pdf ] .This method chiefly involves the usage of dynamic scheduling algorithm and computation of free energy.The construction which has the lowest free energy is considered to be most stable. [ same as before ] .Mfold and RNAfold are two such algorithms based on dynamic programming whereas Densityfold ( Alkna et al. , 2006 ) calculates the thermodynamic footings to organize infrastructure through the agencies of free energy minimisation. [ Rna introductio new file 2nd parity ]

During the event of base-pairing, if one nucleotide base does non try to reach other base so if signifiers a loop.T

Free energy nearest-neighbour theoretical account

The computing machine algorithm has to make up one’s mind which of the secondary construction in a individual sequence is more suited by comparing the secondary construction with another.This is done by sing free energy alteration with 37*c and… … … … ..

Dynamic Programming

Nussinov et Al. ( 1978 ) and Waterman ( 1978 ) foremost introduced Dynamic Programming. [ Current topicsby Tao ] A simple manner to cipher the possible secondary construction for given N figure of bases can be determined by following:

Number of secondary construction ~ ( 1.8 ) capital N

The above computation implies that when the length of the sequence increases so the possible secondary constructions besides sees an increment.So, the job arises to the computing machine to cipher free energy for all possible constructions when the lenght of the sequence is increased.More clip is consumed with less statisfactory consequences is produced.Therefore, a dynamic scheduling algorithm proves to be useful.It does non give the construction item of all the possible secondary constructions but alternatively it surveies each conformations and merely give the elaborate construction of the right possible secondary structures.This procedure of traveling throught every possible constructions generated is done in steps.First measure is called fill which compares the short sequence and long sequence wholly and decides for the sequence holding lowest free energy.Once this is done, so another method called traceback is utilized.This method calculates the lowest free energy to find the right construction conformation holding lowest free energy values.However, these algorithms does non include pseudoknots.The dynamic scheduling algorithm has scaling system.For case, O [ N3 ] is the grading of algorithms which excludes pseudoknots.The graduated table implies that a processor in computing machine requires three times the processor ‘s clip when N=1.The graduated table which includes pseudoknots are O [ N4 ] , O [ N5 ] . [ Revolution – David H.Matthews ] .

Computational methods

Nussinov ‘s Algorithm

Nussinov et Al. ( 1978 ) foremost solved the creases utilizing maximising base pairs.The ground behind utilizing maximal figure of base brace lies in the fact that while partner offing the bases, H bond is formed which helps in giving the RNA construction the stability.Thus, the anticipation of construction should get down by numbering figure of base braces in a construction. This algorithm devised by Nussinov is repetative which means that it is recursive in nature.For a base brace to organize it has to follow certain regulations like two bases distant by three bases can organize a base brace unlike less than three bases which can non organize a base pair.Let us consider that it is distant by four bases so in computation of the figure of base brace is assumed to be zero as it does non stay by the rules.It is considered to the full dependent on the denumerable base pairs.It follows a go uping order to cipher the optimum structure.First, it calculates the smaller sequels and subsequently the bigger ones.The algorithm is given as
equation: [ Computational mol biological science by Rajiv Tyagi ] .

Zuker ‘s Algorithm

Zuker and Stielger devised Zuker Algorithm based on Dynamic programming which followed nearest neighbout theoretical account to happen out the Free energy Minimization of an RNA.In zuker algorithm it considers a set of cringles in RNA secondary construction, slowercase0… .sm, where m is greater than zero.Energy of a construction S can be calculated as:

It is used in MFOLD ( Zuker,1989 ) and besides in ViennaRNA ( Schuster et al.,1994 ) which are computational tools to foretell the secondary construction from a given RNA sequence.It is a sophisticated dynamic scheduling algorithm which helps us to happen the minimised energy conformation.It is an algorithm which can cipher even immense sequences of RNA which is non possible in other algorithms.This is because for an RNA sequence of N length, it takes 8 times the computing machine processor clip in general, O ( N3 ) clip and 4 times the infinite that a computing machine requires that is O ( N2 ) space.Zuker Algorithm besides tested suboptimal creases in 1989 by spread outing his algorithm.It is dependent on a convention named as “ nesting convention ” which states that when base brace I, J and K, cubic decimeter is present it follows I

Drawbacks of Zuker ‘s Algorithm

I ) It is non able to see Pseudoknots in foretelling a peculiar secondary construction of RNA.

Nearest theoretical account… … … … … … … … … … , Suboptimal construction.

Drawbacks of Free Energy Minimization

1.Free Energy Minimization ( MFE ) is non a dependable method.This histories to two chief grounds.

The first ground is that “ the optimum construction can be seperated from the available infinite by a high energy barrier and the clip needed to get the better of it can transcend the life-time of the molecule. ” [ imp2.pdf ]

The 2nd is that the free energy calaculation is uncomplete which does non take into history the contact with third and other molecule interactions.

2.It requires intensive usage of computational methods which become excessively dearly-won with the addition in the RNA research. [ imp.html ] .

Therefore, these restrictions blurred the anticipation of secondary construction of RNA by Free Energy Minimization method.But it is ever possible to find the lowest free energy conformation.So, the lowest free energy seconday construction is termed as suboptimal construction.

Comparative Sequence Analysis

The 2nd method to foretell secondary RNA construction is based on biological attack that the construction gets conserved in the procedure of development instead than the sequences.It depends on anterior sequence alliance and hunts for conserved residues and covariant base brace of same secondary construction but which has different sequences ( Woese and Pace,1993 ) .Covariant residues are the base brace which perform fluctuation in order to keep the Watson-Crick base brace rules.It means that in a sequence when a base changes so the other base to which it pairs should besides alter to keep base partner offing rules.It requires difficult labor to aline the sequences prior to the method but it is the most sure approach.To predict secondary RNA by this method, foremost the sequences are aligned and so the folding session is achieved in the old already aligned sequences.Covariant base braces can be searched both by automated and manual ways.Stochastic Context Free Grammar, Mutual information helps to seek covariation which finally leads it to the evolutionary conserved basal braces.

Stochastic Context Free Grammar

In this method, foremost the Grammars are made with a set of data.Grammar is assumed to be ‘a set of variables holding a terminus and nonterminals ‘ [ 446.pdf ] . After a grammar has been made, it is tested in sequence if it can really follow up the language.It can be fitted into the sequence by utilizing parse tree.We can presume that the root of the tree be S, a start mark for the non-terminal.And assume leaves to be terminal marks and the nodes to be the nonterminals.Then after the position from way left to compensate will give the conseqences of production.

SCFG.G helps to bring forth sequences and subsequently adds up proabability to it to explicate the distribution of the chance on those produced sequences. “ The chance of parse tree can be calculated as the merchandise of the probabilites of the productions used to bring forth the sequence. “ The overall amount of chances can be given as:

Prob ( s stl… .. [ SCFG equation ]

As the denumerable possible parse tree calculated for s is in exponential province, there exists a job when we try to cipher the Prob ( s | G ) . It is encountered when we consider the sequences which can be assorted length.This job can be ignored when we use dynamic scheduling methods.It is much better than the early developed methods like AU72 or Cocke-Kasami-Young which used to be implemented for non-stochastic Context Free Grammar methods.However, the clip taken by dynamic scheduling methods is three times the length of sequence s.We can by and large find whether the given sequence lucifers with the grammar.To determine it we have to utilize the negative value of log for Prob ( s | G ) that is -log ( Prob ( s | G ) ) .This is defined as NLL ( Negative Log Likelihood ) or the mark of the give sequence s.

There is a opportunity that the grammar gives more than one possible parse trees.This another possible parse trees given for a individual sequence is considered as alternate secondary structure.Usually a grammar accounts all the possible secondary construction out of a individual RNA sequence and so the Stochastic Context Free Grammar ( SCFG ) comes to the scenario by corroborating the most likely secondary RNA construction out of all the possiblilities that the grammar had listed.This can be taken as the use of the Stochastic Context Free Grammar.For illustration, the possible parse trees for secondary construction of transfer RNA worked out by the grammar which is about the same like the needed secondary construction produces the exact secondary construction of tRNA sequences.

This method is besides helpful in alining multiple sequences.This is done by the undermentioned procedure.First, the exact possible parse tree is determined and so the sequence alliance procedure is achieved by the grammar.Thenafter, common alliance event happens beween the sequences.

SCFG from sequences

It has been given by Searls that the ground for finding Stochastic Context Free Grammar ( SCFG ) by an efficient manner is to find household of RNA sequences.The advantages of Context Free Grammar in RNA folding is besides discussed by Searl but it does non exemplify the manner of finding the grammar.

SCFGs from multiple alliances

The method applied to multiple alliances to acquire Stochastic Context Free Grammar lists the non base partner offing four bases distributed in each colum and base partner offing 16 mated bases distributed in seperate brace of columns.Then, single missive frequence of happening is counted in their ain several columns. [ ] .Thus, it is able to build profile for multiple alliance if given before clip.

Common information

The common information is besides termed as transinformation which indicates the information which can be predicted by comparing with other variables.The common information can be given as:

Mij= ( sumof ) fxi xj log2 ( small letter ) fxi xj/fxi fxj

fxi implies the frequencey of base.

fxixj implies the merchandise of base in I and J

Information is rated betweed 0-2bits

and common information can non be calculated if I and J are non in relation.Thus, common information is 0.

Covariance Method

In a multipe aligned sequence, covarying residues are found out most of the clip by the presence of mutations.The Covariance theoretical accounts ( COVE ) was first given by Eddy and Durbin.Eventhough it calculates exact consequences, it is non considered for larger length genomes as it is clip devouring.


Some package [ 1 ] that helps to foretell secondary constructions of RNA are given below: For a individual RNA sequence,

  1. Mfold – Zuckers Mfold webserver for turn uping and hybridisation anticipation.
  2. RNAfold – Vienna RNA [ 2 ] secondary construction waiter
  3. HotKnots – it includes pseudoknots

Mfold and RNAfold

It is Zukers Mfold webserver for turn uping and hybridisation prediction.An energy computation plan can be found named as efn which is implemented to cipher energy of creases, phyletic construction and to happen out the energies of creases at different temperature status and to foretell their stability.It runs in UNIX and VAX/VMS systems.The figure of base braces are found out by the hiting plan in the creases. [ 2707-Mfold ] .

RNAfold is used for the anticipation of secondary constructions in instance of individual sequence.It predicts minimal free energy by Zuker and Stiegler algorithm.It besides uses another algorithm called John McCaskill ‘s divider map algorithm to calculate chance of base partner offing events. ( 1. Zuker, M. and Stiegler, P. ( 1981 ) Optimal computing machine folding of larger RNA sequences utilizing thermodynamics and subsidiary information. Nucleic Acids Res. , 9, 133-148. ) The predicted mfe is drawn on naview layout and a graph which is known as ‘dot secret plan ‘ in which the chances of the base brace can be seen clearly.Lastly, a mountain secret plan is used which depicts both the mfe and possibilities of base braces. [ 3429RNAfold.pdf ]


It is called as a ‘heuristic algorithm ‘ [ HOtknotspdf ] .It is an efficient algorithm to foretell the secondary construction of RNA which includes Pseudoknots. HotKnots algorithm returns in the same manner like other algorithms bring forthing possible or candidate construction but add pseudoknots separately to partial structures.It can be differenciated with other algorithms by the consequence that it produces.Result produced is a tree of possible constructions as it does non modify the multiple partial constructions.Moreover, in the add-ons made each clip the pseudoknots or infrastructure holding low energy produced from a given sequence is considered.It is assumed that it can outcast the familial algorithm, NUPACK algorithm and the Pknots algorithm by Reeder in footings of its work. HotKnots does non corroborate the production of optimum construction sing the energy model.HotKnots gives a possibility of incorporating covariant modeled secondary construction methods to take for better consequences when we consider a few RNA homologous sequence.

The algorithm adds infrastructures in which it takes interior cringles, bump cringles and stacked braces into consideration which is termed as ‘hotspot ‘ which is needed for the extension of the secondary constructions. ‘Sets of hot spots ‘ are made up in a tree form.It means that it has a tree, node with hot spots given as T, Hv.It is expaned and takes signifier of SecStr ( S, Hv ) .The figure below demonstrates it more expeditiously:

CaptureHotspot… .

For multiple RNA sequences,

  1. Mifold – seeks for covarying parts by utilizing common information step
  2. RNAalifold – uses both covariation and energy minimisation.
  3. RNAcast – based on RNA form.
  4. SEED – uses a twine attack.
  5. CONSAN – uses a stochastic context-free grammar attack.

It is the RNA secondary construction anticipation package that is in most utilize right now which is based on free energy minimization.It follows “ nearest neighbour ” theoretical account.The secondary construction is created by three stairss: I ) Co-variance fillip computation, two ) Filling energy matrices iii ) Backtracking.A bit known as FPGA Field Programmable Gate-Array is used to fix it with the aid of cutom design.RNAalifold ( M.Zuker 1981 ) is one of the three chief package plan that uses Free Energy Minimization as the guideline.The other two are Mfold and RNAfold. The difference of RNAalifold between other two is that RNAalifold uses extended Zuker algorithm.It calculates the minimal energy and ‘covariation mark matrix ‘ .It requires O ( thousand * nlow2 + n 3 ) and O ( n2 ) in clip and infinite where m can be assumed as figure of sequences and Ns to be the length of the sequence. ( Gardner P, Giegerich R: A comprehensive comparing of comparative

Applications of RNA secondary construction anticipation

In biomolecules, construction and map are interrelated with each other.To determine the map of an RNA molecule, accurate anticipation of secondary construction is necessary. Therefore, RNA secondary construction anticipation is necessary to find and analyze cistrons like RNA genes.These are besides known as non-coding RNA.For illustration: MiRNA has long stem like cringle constructions holding internal cringles within themselves.Application of RNA secondary construction plays an of import function in drug design. Futhermore, RNA secondary construction anticipation is besides considered as an of import phase in three dimensional modeling